Development of Automation Using Robotic Process Automation (RPA) - Wahyu Sardjono

ABSTRACT. The invention and innovation during Industrial Revolution 4.0 create Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity, and Ambiguous (VUCA). RPA is a technology that enables the deployment of computer programs (bots) that automate rule-based processes through a graphical user interface (GUI). RPA allows the creation of bots or minor applications or scripts. RPA leverages the existing user interface and features of the existing system. Bots will mimic the interaction between a system and a human user. Compared to traditional automation methods, robotic process automation (RPA) does not require much investment. Companies need to select the best RPA software that suits their needs. RPA governance needs to be established for producing good quality RPA. 

Keywords: Industrial Revolution 4.0, RPA, automation, business process. 

  1. Introduction

We are now in the 4th Industrial Revolution. The First Industrial Revolution was started in the 18th century. People at that time discovered and used steam power and machine to support their production process. Subsequently, steam engines and steamships have taken progress in regard to moving people or goods in great distances. The Second Industrial revolution took place in the 19th century. This was because of the discovery of electricity, assembly lines, and mass production. The most famous usage of assembly line production was at Ford automobile makers. The third one was started around the 1970s through the use of electronics and programmable computers in the business process. The fourth Industrial Revolution is currently happening. The most famous characteristic of this 4th revolution is the usage of information and communication technology especially the vast growth of network connections using the internet or digital technology. 

The industrial revolution usually takes place for a century, except for the transition of Industry 3.0 to Industry 4.0. According to Ray Prasad, the first and the second industrial revolution were all about hardware changes. The third revolution 3.0 started as a hardware revolution but has turned to more software progression. Companies can produce software to support business performance. The Industrial Revolution 4.0 is not truly a radical change, as we already invented software 30-40 years back. For this industrial revolution, people are now trying to enhance software capabilities. With this industrial revolution, we can build a prototype digitally, and test it digitally to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of the product before producing them. Software and hardware can connect to each other via an internet network. RPA is one of the innovations that was produced in Revolution 4.0. 

  1. Literature Review

In early 2000, around the same time of Industrial Revolution 4.0, the VUCA concept was introduced. VUCA stands for Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity, and Ambiguous. VUCA represents a constant, unpredictable change that is now the norm in industries and all regions of the world. Technology in the Industry 4.0 era is growing exponentially. The way consumers interact is also changing. Many discoveries have made the old business model less suitable for use because it has been eroded by new digital technology. Consumers who used to be comfortable traveling to meet face to face, now prefer to transact using their smartphones. Because it's easier and saves time. With technology, the speed processing of transactions can also be done quickly. This makes many companies adopt technology to transform their business. This is so that the process can be faster and more efficient so that it can compete with other companies. Multiple analyses suggest that Business Leaders in this becoming complex world require unique abilities to adopt new technologies and continue to innovate.  

According to Neeraj Singhal, Leadership should play an important role in times of VUCA. There are no well-defined solutions available to solve each VUCA issue. At times like this, strong leadership is required to provide direction to the people on how to navigate VUCA. Leadership should play an exemplary role in fighting VUCA at the front. Leadership should show confidence and make sure everyone does their job during VUCA.